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*Ptolemy I associated his son Philadelphus with him as co regent in 285 BC, and he inherited the kingdom in 282 BC. [23][24][25], Ptolemy clashed with the kingdom of Nubia, located to the south of Egypt, over the territory known as the Triakontaschoinos ('thirty-mile land'). There he rewarded his soldiers by distributing large plots of land that had been reclaimed from Lake Moeris in the Fayyum to them as estates (kleroi). As a result, both were given the epithet "Philadelphoi" (Koinē Greek: Φιλάδελφοι "Sibling-lovers"). The peasant masses of the Nile Valley provided cheap labour, so that the introduction of slavery on a broad basis was never considered an economic necessity in Ptolemaic Egypt. The greatest of the Hellenistic kings of his time, Philadelphus exercised power far beyond the confines of Egypt, while at his glittering royal court the Library of Alexandria grew to be a matchless monument to Greek intellectual life. His brother Ptolemy Ceraunus found compensation by becoming king in Macedonia in 281, and perished in the Gallic invasion of 280—79 (see Brennus ). These included the epistolographos ('letter-writer', responsible for diplomacy), the hypomnematographos ('memo-writer' or the chief secretary), the epi ton prostagmaton ('in charge of commands', who produced the drafts of royal edicts), the key generals, and the dioiketes ('household manager', who was in charge of taxation and provincial administration). Ptolemy II Philadelphus (308–246 bc). three ways. Around 272 BC, Ptolemy II promoted himself and his sister-wife Arsinoe II to divine status as the Theoi Adelphoi (Sibling Gods). He was married to his full sister Arsinoe II. The scholars worked in Alexandria during the reign of Ptolemy II Philadelphus (285-247 B.C. Professor of Ancient History, University of Trier, Germany. He was married to his full sister Arsinoe II. Siya ang anak ng tagapagtatag ng Kahariang Ptolemaiko na si Ptolomeo I Soter at Berenice I ng Ehipto. The leaders of these missions established a chain of 270 harbour bases along the coasts, some of which grew to be important commercial centres. Ptolemy I had originally supported the establishment of his friend Seleucus I as ruler of Mesopotamia, but relations had cooled after the Battle of Ipsos in 301 BC, when both kings claimed Syria. He also began a tradition of a four-yearly celebration to honor his father. In about 285 BC, Ptolemy I Soter probably took as his co-ruler one of his sons by Berenice, Ptolemy II Philadelphus, who became the sole ruler of Egypt and the rest of his father's empire upon the elder king's death in about 282 BC. [14], Continued conflict over the issue within his kingdom led to the execution of Agathocles and the collapse of Lysimachus' kingdom in 281 BC. The festival provided an opportunity for Ptolemy II to showcase the splendour, wealth, and reach of the Ptolemaic empire. While the Macedonian forces were bogged down in Greece, Ptolemy reasserted his influence in the Aegean, making good the setback suffered during the Chremonidean War. His parents were defeated by Octavian (future Roman Emperor Augustus) during the naval battle at Actium, … [39][40] In 265/4 BC, Areus once again tried to cross the Isthmus of Corinth and aid the beleaguered Athenians, but Antigonus II concentrated his forces against him and defeated the Spartans, with Areus himself among the dead. Ptolemy II Philadelphus: Life …end by marrying his daughter, Berenice—provided with a huge dowry—to his foe Antiochus II. The age of Ptolemy II coincided with the apex of Hellenistic civilization; its vigour and glamour were a result of the still fresh forces of Greek leadership in the eastern Mediterranean. Even further south was Ptolemais Theron (possibly located near the modern Port Sudan), which was used as a base for capturing elephants. The magnitude of this political masterstroke can be gauged by the fact that Antiochus, before marrying the Ptolemaic princess, had to dismiss his former wife, Laodice. A festival, called the Ptolemaia, was held in Ptolemy I's honour at Alexandria every four years from 279/278 BC. Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. Ptolemy II Philadelphus, (Philadelphus in Greek: “Brother-Loving”) (born 308 bce, Cos—died 246), king of Egypt (285–246 bce), second king of the Ptolemaic dynasty, who extended his power by skillful diplomacy, developed agriculture and commerce, and made Alexandria a leading centre of the arts and sciences. [31], Ptolemy revived earlier Egyptian programmes to access the Red Sea. The magnitude of this political masterstroke can be gauged by the fact that Antiochus, before marrying the Ptolemaic … Estimate: $5,000 - $10,000. The eponymous priest of the deified Alexander, who served annually and whose name was used to date all official documents, became the 'Priest of Alexander and the Theoi Adelphoi.' Ptolemy ordering the building of the Library of Alexandria. His father Mark Antony summoned Cleopatra to a summit near Antioch, Syria (now a part of modern Turkey) in a place Plutarch locates situated between Beirut and Sidon, called Light, an unwalled village. The greatest of the Hellenistic kings of his time, Philadelphus exercised power far beyond the confines of Egypt, while at his glittering royal court the Library of Alexandria grew to be a matchless monument to Greek intellectual life. Each village had a komarch (village-leader) and a komogrammateus (village-secretary), who reported to the nomarch and the basilikos grammateus respectively. Philadelphus married… Ptolemy II Philadelphus (Greek: Πτολεμαῖος Φιλάδελφος, Ptolemaios Philadelphos "Ptolemy, friend of his siblings"; 308/9 – 28 January 246 BC) was the pharaoh of Ptolemaic Egypt from 283 to 246 BC. They had no offspring, but in the 260s BC, the children of Arsinoe I were legally declared to be her children. Author of. On the one hand, Lysimachus himself had been married to Ptolemy II's full sister, Arsinoe II, since 300 BC. On the contrary, the naval bases established during the war at Keos and Methana endured until the end of the third century BC, while those at Thera, and Itanos in Crete remained bulwarks of Ptolemaic sea power until 145 BC. Ptolemy was the pharaoh of Ptolemaic Egypt from 283 to 246 BC. Ptolemy was no more successful in the Second Syrian War (c. 260–253), fought against the coalition of the Seleucid king Antiochus II and Antigonus Gonatas. [76], Ptolemy II cultivated good relations with Carthage, in contrast to his father, who seems to have gone to war with them at least once. Ptolemy II was no man of peace, but neither was he one of the warlike Hellenistic soldier-kings. In artistic depictions, Ptolemy II was often depicted with divine attributes, namely the club of Heracles and the elephant-scalp headdress associated with Alexander the Great, while Arsinoe was shown carrying a pair of cornucopiae with a small ram's horn behind her ear. Para sa ibang paggamit ng Ptolomeo o Tolomeo, tingnan ang Ptolomeo (paglilinaw).. Si Ptolomeo II Philadelphus (Greek: Πτολεμαῖος Φιλάδελφος, Ptolemaîos Philádelphos, 309 BCE – 246 BCE) ang hari ng Ehiptong Ptolemaiko mula 283 BCE hanggang 246 BCE. The conflict was probably the reason why Ptolemy executed two of his brothers, probably full brothers of Keraunos, in 281 BC. His successor, Ptolemy II Philadelphus, transferred the sarcophagus to Alexandria, where it remained until at least late Antiquity. Browse the Ptolemy II page with thumbnail images. three ways. Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership, https://www.britannica.com/biography/Ptolemy-II-Philadelphus, Fact Monster - People - Biography of Ptolemy II, Virtual Religion Network - Biography of Ptolemy II Philadelphus. [21] Shortly thereafter, Magas invaded Egypt, marching on Alexandria, but he was forced to turn back when the Libyan nomads launched an attack on Cyrene. [84] He had many mistresses, including Agathoclea (? Around 279 BC, Arsinoe II returned to Egypt, where she clashed with her sister-in-law Arsinoe I. Two hieroglyphic stelae commemorate Ptolemy's activities in this context. [77] Ptolemy was also the first Egyptian ruler to enter into formal relations with the Roman Republic. Thus freed for the moment from Seleucid opposition and sustained… Antiochus II Theos. [56] A republican government, led by two Cyrenaeans named Ecdelus and Demophanes controlled Cyrene until Berenice's actual wedding to Ptolemy III in 246 BC after his accession to the throne. born 308, Cos. died 246 BC. Page 1 of 1 - About 9 essays. Ptolemy II’s record in domestic affairs is no less impressive. At this same moment, Ptolemy's own forces were hamstrung. [73] The Zenon papyri also record experiments by the dioiketes Apollonius to establish cash crop regimes, particularly growing castor oil, with mixed success. [42], Despite the presence of Patroclus and his fleet, it appears that Ptolemy II hesitated to fully commit himself to the conflict in mainland Greece. [57], This article is about the Egyptian ruler. He had two full sisters, Arsinoe II and Philotera. However, the conflict did not mean the complete end of the Ptolemaic presence in the Aegean. Rock Edict Nb13 (S. Dhammika), Ptolemy married his first wife, Arsinoe I, daughter of Lysimachus, between 284 and 281 BC. For the son of Cleopatra VII and Mark Antony, see Ptolemy Philadelphus (son of Cleopatra). Ptolemy ordered the erection of the core of the Temple of Isis at Philae was erected in his reign and assigned the tax income from the newly conquered Dodekaschoinos region to the temple. 275/4-272 BC. [16] Another poet Theocritus defended the marriage by comparing it to the marriage of the gods Zeus and his older sister Hera. Antiochus II then took control of the Ptolemaic cities in. He became joint ruler with his father two years before his death in 283 BC. Philadelphia King 283 246 BC. 2. Reigning at first with his father, Ptolemy I Soter, he became sole ruler in 283–282 and purged his family of possible rivals. He became his father’s co-regent in 284 BC and took over as the sole king of … The reasons for this reluctance are unclear, but it appears that, especially in the last years of the war, Ptolemaic involvement was limited to financial support for the Greek city-states and naval assistance. On the other hand, Lysimachus' heir, Agathocles, was married to Keraunos' full sister Lysandra. Over 2,000 talents were distributed to attendees as largesse. Second king of the Ptolemaic dynasty in Egypt. The Ptolemaic admiral Patroclus sailed into the Aegean in 267 BC and established a base on the island of Keos. Ptolemy II Philadelphus and his World: Paul McKechnie, Philippe Guillaume: 9789004170896: Books - Amazon.ca This bronze bust is usually attributed to the Ptolemaic king Ptolemy II Philadelphus (r. 283-246 BCE) although alternative identifications of the bust have been made. Ptolemy II carried on his father passion for expanding and building theGreat Library at Alexandria. The magnitude of this political masterstroke can be gauged by the fact that Antiochus, before marrying the Ptolemaic princess, had to dismiss his former wife, Laodice. He was the second ruler of the Ptolemaic dynasty, and he acquired the moniker "Philadelphus" ("sister-lover") for marrying his sister Arsinoe II. He had it cleared and restored to operation in 270/269 BC - an act which is commemorated in the Pithom Stele. was a king of Egypt, the second and greatest of the Lagid dynasty of Macedonian kings who ruled Egypt between 323 and 30 B.C. If Plutarch is to be believed, then, Philadelphos was conceived in an unwalled village called Light, during this Mark Antony and Cleopatra summit between roughly November and December 37 BCE because P… The region may have been used by the Nubians as a base for raids on southern Egypt. One of the Ptolemaia festivals from the 270s BC was described by the historian Callixenus of Rhodes and part of his account survives, giving a sense of the enormous scale of the event. He was the son of Ptolemy I Soter, the Macedonian Greek general of Alexander the Great who founded the Ptolemaic Kingdom after the death of Alexander, and queen Berenice I, originally from Macedon in northern Greece. The Seleucid forces were afflicted by economic problems and an outbreak of plague. The Pithom stele records the inauguration of a temple at Pithom by Ptolemy, in 279 BC on his royal jubilee. [51][50], After the war was over, in July 253 BC Ptolemy travelled to Memphis. A canal from the Nile near Bubastis to the Gulf of Suez - via Pithom, Lake Timsah and the Bitter Lakes - had been dug by Darius I in the sixth century BC. Ptolemy II continued to issue silver coins bearing his father's image rather than his own & initiated gold coins with his sister's image. Circa 270 BC it was replaced by an even larger gold coin, the mnaieion, worth 100 silver drachms. Ptolemy II Philadelphus (Greek: Πτολεμαῖος Φιλάδελφος, Ptolemaios Philadelphos "Ptolemy, friend of his siblings"; 308/9 – 28 January 246 BC) was the pharaoh of Ptolemaic Egypt from 283 to 246 BC. Seu sucessor, Ptolemeu II, transferiu o sarcófago para Alexandria, onde permaneceu até o fim do período conhecido como Antiguidade Tardia. Although the date of … Some time after 275 BC, Arsinoe I was charged with conspiracy and exiled to Coptos. [7] The children of his mother Berenice's first marriage to Philip included Magas of Cyrene and Antigone, the wife of Pyrrhus of Epirus. With reference to the family tree enclosed, intermarrying within Cleopatra’s family was so prevalent that she only had two ancestors alive 1… [54], Ptolemy died on 28 January 246 BC and was succeeded by Ptolemy III without incident. The Nesiotic League, which contained the Aegean islands under Ptolemaic control, held its own Ptolemaia festival at Delos from the early 270s BC. One reason for this may have been the desire to outflank Magas of Cyrene, who shared a border with the Carthaginian empire at the Altars of Philaeni. [8][9] In contemporary documents, Ptolemy is usually referred to as 'King Ptolemy son of Ptolemy' to distinguish him from his father. The couple were worshipped as a pair, the Theoi Soteres (Saviour Gods). In addition, Ptolemy initiated work at a number of other sites, including (from north to south): Ptolemaic Egypt was administered by a complicated bureaucratic structure. These settlements allowed the Ptolemies access to the western end of the caravan routes of the incense trade, run by the Nabataeans, who became close allies of the Ptolemaic empire. 285-272 BC. Chremonides and his brother Glaucon, who were responsible for the Athenian participation in the war, fled to Alexandria, where Ptolemy welcomed them into his court. The first Ptolemy began the project, and the second Ptolemy (Ptolemy II Philadelphus) completed it, at a total cost of 800 talents. Ptolemy II Philadelphus (Greek: Πτολεμαῖος Φιλάδελφος, Ptolemaîos Philádelphos "Ptolemy Beloved of his Sibling"; 309–246 BCE) was the king of Ptolemaic Egypt from 283 to 246 BCE. Ptolemy "the son" and an associate took control of the Ptolemaic territories in western Asia Minor and the Aegean. Ptolemy II Philadelphus Ptolemy II was the youngest son of Ptolemy I Soter. Heir of Ptolemy son of Lagus, Alexander the Great's general (who took Egypt over in 323BC), Ptolemy II Philadelphus reigned in Alexandria from 282 to 246. Around 275 BC Antiochus entered into an alliance with Magas by marrying his daughter Apama to him. He was the son of Ptolemy I Soter, the Macedonian Greek general of Alexander the Great who founded the Ptolemaic Kingdom after the death of Alexander, and queen Berenice I, originally from Macedon in northern Greece. [28][29] The conquered territory included the rich gold mines at Wadi Allaqi, where Ptolemy founded a city called Berenice Panchrysus and instituted a large-scale mining programme. He retained that position until his rebellion in 259 BC. Under Ptolemy’s supervision and with the help of Greek administrators, this system developed into a kind of planned economy. She was married three times; first to Alexander the Great's general Lysimachus, then to her half-brother Ptolemy, nicknamed Ceraunus, and finally to his full brother Ptolemy II. Ptolemy II Philadelphus (Greek: Πτολεμαῖος Φιλάδελφος, Ptolemaîos Philádelphos "Ptolemy Beloved o his Sibling"; 309–246 BCE) wis the king o Ptolemaic Egyp frae 283 tae 246 BCE. Ptolemy II Philadelphus (“brotherly” or “Brother/Sister-loving”), was the second ruler of the Ptolemaic Dynasty and the son of Ptolemy I and Berenice I who died before 283 BC. [37], The Athenian politician Chremonides forged a further alliance with Sparta in 269 BC. It is possible, but not certain, that Antigonus was still at war with Ptolemy II during this period and that his great naval victory over Ptolemy at the Battle of Kos (mentioned above) took place in 255 BC within the context of the Second Syrian War. Alexandria, ca. [32], Along the Egyptian coast, Philotera, Myos Hormos, and Berenice Troglodytica would become important termini of caravan routes running through the Egyptian desert and key ports for the Indian Ocean trade which began to develop over the next three centuries. [71][72], The whole of Egypt was divided into thirty-nine districts, called nomes (portions), whose names and borders had remained roughly the same since early Pharaonic times. In addition to Egypt, Ptolemy's empire encompassed much of the Aegean and Levant. He also began a tradition of a four-yearly celebration to honor his father. Although a new war with the Seleucids (from 274 to 270) did not affect the basic position of the rival kingdoms, the so-called Chremonidean War (268?–261), stirred up by Ptolemy against Antigonus II Gonatas, king of Macedonia, resulted in the weakening of Ptolemaic influence in the Aegean and brought about near disaster to Ptolemy’s allies Athens and Sparta. One ancient account claims that Ptolemy II murdered his father, but other sources say that he died of old age, which is more likely given that he was in his mid-eighties. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Ptolemy II Philadelphus - article in Wikipedia's web. While sibling-marriage conformed to the traditional practice of the Egyptian pharaohs, it was shocking to the Greeks who considered it incestuous. 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