here is an article where I took micrographs of 42 knife steels, https://www.bladehq.com/cat–Best-Knife-Steel-Guide–3368. “Effect of Vanadium in High-speed Steel.” Trans. It is true that a steel like 420 does have a limited maximum hardness but for most of the others it is a matter of choice. Shop By Steel Type; Maxamet; Sort by: Maxamet. In materials science and metallurgy, toughness is the ability of a material to absorb energy and plastically deform without fracturing. So it was a good upgrade overall due to decreased cost and improved properties. Chuck, Your email address will not be published. Maxamet steel version of the Manix 2 with gray FRCP handle. The higher carbon required by these grades necessitated improvements in steelmaking techniques to control segregation . However, Rex 121 is at an even higher level of insanity in terms of wear resistance and would be expected to be another notch higher. $203.05. The full-flat-ground blade includes a fully accessible Trademark Round Hole™ for swift, ambidextrous, one-handed opening. I will be criticizing their descriptions of steels and steel properties as well as the ratings that they provide. The actual meaning of the toughness relates to the properties of a particular material. You can see that even at the same hardness, the toughness of T4 is significantly lower. ). It's a close tie, but Maxamet wins in the end. And here is an example of the process for finding the optimal carbon content, in this case M42. $290.00 $203.00. However, the use of PM technology allowed an increase in vanadium content. After that it will be interesting to test the edge stability and toughness with more controlled destructive edge testing. REX 121 Steel: Hardness vs. Toughness. Thanks to Stacy Apelt for becoming a Knife Steel Nerds Patreon supporter!  Makovec, Heinz, Ingrid Schemmel, and Ernst Putzgruber. The most obvious strange thing in the ratings is that 420HC is listed as having better corrosion resistance than 420 for some reason: This article has a much less pretentious title and was written by Dan Jackson. 1.4034 stainless steel is essentially a 420HC made in Germany but is given the highest score for toughness of “7” a full 2 points higher than 420HC, and higher than the high toughness steels 5160 and 1050. Most of the time, that question is answered with “everything.”. Frank. The ratings above are perhaps the best of those analyzed so far though he was helped by the fact that he did not rate toughness; that is a “tough” one to rate using commonly available information. Interesting how some knife companies are doing a similar rating system with numbers and charts. This Para Military 2 features all the characteristics of the best-selling standard model, plus the supercharged edge holding and toughness of a Maxamet blade. 420HC is not necessarily made in America and is not similar in composition to 440C, as 440C has much higher carbon and chromium. He next lists the effect of different elements which as I explained above I’m not a big fan of. The full-flat-ground blade includes a fully accessible Trademark Round Hole for swift, ambidextrous, one-handed opening. It does have grains, yes, but it does not have a sandy or grainy appearance. The exception is D2 which gets a relatively high edge retention score (higher than S30V) despite a low wear resistance rating of 4 (compared to 6 for S30V). How can a knife consumer determine that by looking at the steel composition? The Maxamet steel in considered as a “Super Steel”, So it’s a High-end Alloy steel, with an uncommon chemical composition, but I can say that the closest one to it is the CPM S110V (even if it’s stainless steel), in exception of wear resistance; the Maxamet is a great match for the S110v in edge retention, hardness, wear-resistance and price range which is between 100-200 Usd. There is no reason I know of to expect better sharpness with a high temper. 66% Score (below this but above 33% is a steel that scores a 1): 372 (66% of Maxamet's 563); CPM 10V at 389. I would rate the toughness of VG-10 higher than 440C despite Dan’s ratings, and would probably score M390 a notch below where Dan has it based on its high carbide volume  and my own testing . “VG-1 is a less expensive Japanese stainless steel somewhat similar to 420HC but which is mostly used by Cold Steel on knives that require a tough blade steel composition.”. I find myself simply answering people with the rhetorical “what do you intend to use it for?”.  Kinzel, A. He has some very pretty charts summarizing the ratings of all of the steels, which I have reproduced below: If you compare the ratings above with those from the Knife Informer ratings you will notice that they are nearly identical. After all, they are designed to be heat treated to at least 67 Rc. On the other hand, the Maxamet has only 4.75% Chromium, while the ZDP has 20%. They are especially critical in survival situations. - Duration: 27:51. I would say if it’s not broken it remains usable. Contributes: Toughness. there is at least 2 grades didn’t have tungsten at all , why there is no even just one grade without vanadium ? At these elevated temperatures, alloying elements are able to move around in the steel, or diffuse. FK Member Posts: 427 Joined: Fri Sep 24, 2004 4:33 pm Location: CT USA. This steel combined 3% vanadium along with high carbon and cobalt to achieve these properties. Too much toughness can lead to a blade easily warped.”. 1975. However, these steels generally did not have wear resistance as high as M4 and T15. Maxamet is a high carbide volume steel, ~22% Les aciers les plus populaires de cette catégorie sont les suivants : CPM S35VN, VG10, CPM S30V, Böhler M390, Böhler N690 et bien plus.  German patent No. https://www.bladehq.com/cat–Best-Knife-Steel-Guide–3368. But before we get to what exactly these steels are and how they work, it makes sense to look at what led to their development first. Notify me of follow-up comments by email. I don’t really like these kinds of explanations. I’d like an opinion on the graphs there. There was a rumor about a new Maxamet PM2 release this year. Many of the descriptions of the steel types are questionable as well, such as, “D2 – An American made, but less expensive version of CPM S30V.”. “Elmax – A third generation Austrian, powder-metal stainless steel that is noted for its fine carbide distribution with extremely low inclusion content.”, “O-1 is an ideal steel for edged weapons and tools because it is known for its ability to be differentially heat treated.”. The high cost of both purchasing these steels and producing knives out of them limits their usage to a relatively small number of knives. “New Bohler powder metallurgy high speed steel with excellent hot hardness.” In Proc. The full-flat-ground blade includes a fully accessible Trademark Round Hole™ for swift, ambidextrous, one-handed opening. I previously wrote about the effects of cobalt in this article. And improvements in composition control allowed more tight targets to appropriately balance the chemistry for maximum hardness . The ZDP has almost no vanadium, while the Maxamet has 6%. I’ve added and subtracted to it over the years to try and make it a decent resource, but at the end of the day I’m just a layperson and a single data point. A proprietary steel and heat treat developed by Busse Knives, INFI is an excellent performer and one of the best steels for big choppers on the market. Click here to download a PDF of this steel chart (107kb) Click here to download a two-page brochure with more details about steel(14 MB).
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